Archive for the ‘Corporate Ethics’ Category
states that “promotion opportunities lead to different effects on job satisfaction because of differences in remuneration as given”. According Nitisemito (2000: 81) promotion is the “process of moving employees from one position to another position in a higher”. Thus, the promotion will always be followed by the duties, responsibilities, and authority higher than the position previously occupied. Through the promotion, the company will gain stability and moral karyawanpun to be more secure. While Robbins (2001:150) states that the promotion will provide an opportunity for personal growth, more responsibility, and increased social status. When promotions are made in a fair manner are expected to provide satisfaction to employees.
Luthans (1998:145) argues that the task of supervision can not be separated with the function of leadership, which affect the business activities of subordinates through a process of communication to achieve specific objectives set out the organization. According to Hasibuan (2001:169), leadership is defined by a manager in an organization can create a harmonious integration and encourages employees’ passion for achieving maximum objectives. Therefore the activities of employees in the company depends on the leadership style that is applied as well as the environmental situation in the companies they work for. The need for guidance, attention and motivation of the leaders expected to spur employees to do their job well, as proposed by Hasibuan (2001:170) that leadership style is essentially aims to promote morale, job satisfaction, and employee productivity is high, so can achieve maximum organization
states that “a friendly colleague, fellow co-workers or work group is a source of job satisfaction for workers individually. While the working group can provide support, advice or suggestions, assistance to fellow colleagues. The working group is well give depth to the job more enjoyable. The good relationship between co-workers is very large it mean when a series of such work requires high teamwork. Level of closeness relations have an influence on the quality and intensity of interactions that occur within a group. Groups that have a high level of closeness tends to lead to more satisfied workers are in a group. Satisfaction arises mainly due to lack of tension, lack of anxiety in the group and therefore more able to adjust to the pressures of work.
Working condition (working conditions)
According to Luthans (1998:146), if working conditions are good (clean and attractive environment), will make the job can be handled easily. Conversely, if the unpleasant working conditions (hot and noisy) will have the opposite effect as well. If the condition is good then there will be no problems with job satisfaction, otherwise if conditions are bad there too bad it will impact on job satisfaction.
Stress in the optimal performance
is a positive stress condition because it can encourage employees to work at higher levels, while the stress of too little and too much burden is the negative stress condition because it can lead to declining performance of the employees. “The emergence of stress, whether caused by something that is fun
or something unpleasant will give a certain effect on a person. Cox divide the four types of consequences that can inflict stress namely:
1. The influence of psychological stress is a result of the impact on the psychological aspects of a person.
2. Influence the behavior is a result of stress that impact on a person’s behavior changes.
3. Influence the cognitive consequences of stress that impact on a person’s thinking ability.
4. Effect of physiological stress is a result of the impact on one’s physical condition.
Signs of stress in an optimal appearance and signs of stress because of too little and too much of a burden will be grouped in four types of consequences that can inflict stress and will be a limitation in this study as seen below, namely:
1. The signs of stress related to the level of workload in an optimal appearance
a. The influence of psychological
2) Calmness under pressure
b. influence the behavior
1) Over the spirit of the work
c. The influence of cognitive
1) Analysis of Low on the matter
2) Better Memory
3) Perception sharp
d. Effect of physiological
1) Have a high energy which are not easily tired
2. The signs of stress related to workload levels because too much and too little workload.
a. The influence of psychological
Performance measurement is an analysis of data and control for the company. Performance measurement used by companies to make improvements on their operations in order to compete with other companies. For investor information about the company’s performance can be used to see whether they will maintain their investment in the company or find other alternatives. In addition measurements were also performed to demonstrate to investors and customers or society in general that the company has a good creditability (Munawir, 1995: 85)
Performance measurement is defined as “performing measurement” (performance measurement) are the qualifications and efficiency of the company or segment or effectiveness in the operation of business during the accounting period. Thus the notion of performance is a formal business enterprise carried out to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of corporate activity that has been implemented in the period of time
certain (Hanafi, 2003: 69). In his book, Halim (2003: 17), entitled “Investment Analysis” mentions that the basic idea of this fundamental approach is that stock prices are influenced by the performance of the company. If the company’s performance is good then the business will be high. With high business value to the company’s investors look to invest their money so that it will increase the stock price. Conversely, if there is bad news about the company’s performance, it will cause the stock price declines at the company. Or it can be said that the stock price is a function of firm value.
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time-based.
S – Specific
Financial goals should be as detailed as possible. Determine the purpose of “saving for a house down payment type 41/72″ instead of “buying a house”. Better yet, if made more specific such as “Saving for a house down payment savings type 41/72 with two-fold increase to 1.2 million per month and reduce the cost of entertainment such as the cafe, go to a movie and the cost of the Internet”.
M – Measurable
Financial goals must be measurable (in this case, the measuring tool of currency). For example, “to save a house down payment of 50 million”.
A – Attainable:
Financial goals have to be very meaningful to you and created by yourself, not by others. The goal should be to give inspiration to motivate you towards success. If you do not persevere to realize your goals, obstacles and challenges will be difficult.
R – Realistic
Goals should be realistic, not a fantasy that can not be realized in the real world. Be an ambitious goal, but not impossible to be realized. Choose the destination where you believe you can achieve it, but not to make you depressed.
T – Time Based
Goals should include specific time frame to achieve them. You specify the appropriate time, the sooner the better. For example, “saving for a house down payment 41/72 type every month by 1.2 million over three years”.
Financial goals should be detailed, measurable, achievable tailored to the financial capabilities, it makes sense and makes it possible to be realized and have a specific time frame to achieve them.
From the example above the financial goals that SMART is “Saving for the Down Payment home type 41/72 of 50 million by increasing savings doubled to 1.2 million every month for 3 years and reduce the cost of entertainment such as the cafe, go to a movie and Internet charges “.
Tasks for you
Create your financial goals, and evaluation. Is it sufficiently specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and there is a period of time? If so, start doing it because without ACTION is NOTHING PLAN.
Business ethics reflects the philosophy of business, one of whose aims is to determine the fundamental purposes of a company. If a company’s purpose is to maximize shareholder returns, then sacrificing profits to other concerns is a violation of its fiduciary responsibility. Corporate entities are legally considered as persons in USA and in most nations. The ‘corporate persons’ are legally entitled to the rights and liabilities due to citizens as persons.
Economist Milton Friedman writes that corporate executives’ “responsibility… generally will be to make as much money as possible while conforming to their basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom”. Friedman also said, “the only entities who can have responsibilities are individuals … A business cannot have responsibilities. So the question is, do corporate executives, provided they stay within the law, have responsibilities in their business activities other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible? And my answer to that is, no, they do not.” A multi-country 2011 survey found support for this view among the “informed public” ranging from 30-80%. Duska views Friedman’s argument as consequentialist rather than pragmatic, implying that unrestrained corporate freedom would benefit the most in long term. Similarly author business consultant Peter Drucker observed, “There is neither a separate ethics of business nor is one needed”, implying that standards of personal ethics cover all business situations. However, Peter Drucker in another instance observed that the ultimate responsibility of company directors is not to harm—primum non nocere. Another view of business is that it must exhibit corporate social responsibility (CSR): an umbrella term indicating that an ethical business must act as a responsible citizen of the communities in which it operates even at the cost of profits or other goals. In the US and most other nations corporate entities are legally treated as persons in some respects. For example, they can hold title to property, sue and be sued and are subject to taxation, although their free speech rights are limited. This can be interpreted to imply that they have independent ethical responsibilities. Duska argues that stakeholders have the right to expect a business to be ethical; if business has no ethical obligations, other institutions could make the same claim which would be counterproductive to the corporation.
Ethical issues include the rights and duties between a company and its employees, suppliers, customers and neighbors, its fiduciary responsibility to its shareholders. Issues concerning relations between different companies include hostile take-overs and industrial espionage. Related issues include corporate governance;corporate social entrepreneurship; political contributions; legal issues such as the ethical debate over introducing a crime of corporate manslaughter; and the marketing of corporations’ ethics policies
As an academic discipline, business ethics emerged in the 1970s. Since no academic business ethics journals or conferences existed, researchers published in general management journals, and attended general conferences. Over time, specialized peer-reviewed journals appeared, and more researchers entered the field. Corporate scandals in the earlier 2000s increased the field’s popularity. As of 2009, sixteen academic journals devoted to various business ethics issues existed, with Journal of Business Ethics and Business Ethics Quarterly considered the leaders.
The International Business Development Institute is a global non-profit organization that represents 217 nations and all 50 United States. It offers a Charter in Business Development (CBD) that focuses on ethical business practices and standards. The Charter is directed by Harvard, MIT, and Fulbright Scholars, and it includes graduate-level coursework in economics, politics, marketing, management, technology, and legal aspects of business development as it pertains to business ethics. IBDI also oversees the International Business Development Institute of Asia which provides individuals living in 20 Asian nations the opportunity to earn the Charter.
Business ethical norms reflect the norms of each historical period. As time passed, those norms evolved, and many behaviors that were once generally accepted became objectionable. Business ethics and the resulting behavior evolved as well. Business was involved in slavery, colonialism, and the cold war. The term ‘business ethics’ came into common use in the United States in the early 1970s. By the mid-1980s at least 500 courses in business ethics reached 40,000 students, using some twenty textbooks and at least ten casebooks along supported by professional societies, centers and journals of business ethics. The Society for Business Ethics was started in 1980. European business schools adopted business ethics after 1987 commencing with the European Business Ethics Network (EBEN). In 1982 the first single-authored books in the field appeared.
Firms started highlighting their ethical stature in the late 1980s and early 1990s, possibly trying to distance themselves from the business scandals of the day, such as the savings and loan crisis. The idea of business ethics caught the attention of academics, media and business firms by the end of the Cold War. However, legitimate criticism of business practices was attacked for infringing the “freedom” of entrepreneurs and critics were accused of support from communists. This scuttled the discourse of business ethics both in media and academia
Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.
Business ethics has both normative and descriptive dimensions. As a corporate practice and a career specialization, the field is primarily normative. Academics attempting to understand business behavior employ descriptive methods. The range and quantity of business ethical issues reflects the interaction of profit-maximizing behavior with non-economic concerns. Interest in business ethics accelerated dramatically during the 1980s and 1990s, both within major corporations and within academia. For example, today most major corporations promote their commitment to non-economic values under headings such as ethics codes and social responsibility charters. Adam Smith said, “People of the same trade seldom meet together, even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public, or in some contrivance to raise prices.” Governments use laws and regulations to point business behavior in what they perceive to be beneficial directions. Ethics implicitly regulates areas and details of behavior that lie beyond governmental control. The emergence of large corporations with limited relationships and sensitivity to the communities in which they operate accelerated the development of formal ethics regimes.
Corporate ethics is a loose term referring to a large set of guidelines about how a corporation should or should not act. The ethics are by no means universally agreed upon and exist to ensure corporations do not take advantage of individuals.
1. Because no two corporations will ever agree precisely on a set of ethical guidelines, there is no concrete system in place. The basic idea is to prevent corporations from taking advantage of those without the power held by the corporations.
2. Unfortunately, due to the abstract nature of the term, the only time that anyone can really agree what is right or wrong is when the effects of a transgression can be observed, and different parties can agree that it went against corporate ethics.
3. The stringy nature of the term makes enforcing it rather difficult, but governmental agencies like the Federal Communications Commission are responsible for holding clearly transgressive companies responsible.
4. Some examples of corporate actions that would be contrary to the ethical system would be bribery, discrimination, insider trading, price discrimination, or running a poor or dangerous work environment.
5. The simplest way to describe corporate ethics would be to emphasize that no one needs to be negatively affected by corporate actions. A clean, open business policy can be enacted, with fair